Category Archives: Aeronautic

Visit us at Le Bourget Trade show (June 17-21, 2019), Hall 2B, Booth D40

The Latest Innovative Solutions for Temperature Measurement Sensors Heating Systems

 

 

Thermocoax Pedigree

For 25 years, THERMOCOAX has been a leading global figure in designing, developing and manufacturing heating systems for the Aerospace market.

We provide solutions for:

– Ground applications:

  • R&D programs in collaboration with institutes
  • Ground test equipment

-Flying models:

  • On board satellites, 50- & 100-volt communications satellites, low orbit constellations, long range space probes
  • On board planes, helicopters

– Defense

  • Armored Vehicles
  • On board fighters, long range missiles
  • Submarines

 

Our solutions include:

  • Heating systems for space propulsion, satellite heating management, shape-memory devices
  • Anti-icing system for pitot tubes, AoA tubing, Ta tubing, drain masts
  • Bleed Air Overheat and fire detection systems
  • Brake temperature monitoring system
  • Engine temperature measuring system
  • Oil and fuel temperature measuring system
  • Heating solutions for composite industries (curing, shaping, bonding…)

 

Heated Waste Water Drain Mast

To remove unnecessary weight, the greywater from the washbasins is ejected outside the plane.

Most airplanes are equipped with two drain masts, one at the front and one at the rear near the washbasins.

 

  • Heritage:
    • Falcon Jet : F900, F2000, F7X
    • A220, Ejet1&2

 

  • Technology with self-regulation or equipped with switches
  • Resin shell
  • Power: from 28 volts to 115 volts
  • Power dissipation: from 20 watts to 250 watts
  • RTCA/DO160

 

 

Brake Temperature Monitoring System

The brake thermocouple gives the brake temperature in real time and can be transformed into a “hot brake” alert for the pilot when the value goes over a predetermined temperature threshold.

It provides the cockpit with important information regarding the temperature of the right and left brakes. If the difference is too great, asymmetric brake friction can occur, leading to difficulties in maintaining constant heading and keeping speed under control.

Thanks to this system, the pilot receives a clear “Go/Don’t Go” message for the takeoff authorization. The brake thermocouple indicates that if an emergency brake needs to be carried out during the takeoff operation, the brake will have its full efficiency so that it can stop the aircraft on time for the safety of all passengers.

 

     

 

  • Heritage:
    • Airbus 350
    • Embraer E-jet
  • Soon to be available for:
    • IRKUT MC21
    • Mitsubishi MRJ
    • COMAC C919
    • Eurofighter
  • K type thermocouple
  • Class1
  • Dielectric 500V
  • Ø5 up to 4.75mm
  • RTCA/DO160

 

Heating System for Space Propulsion

Electrical and chemical thrusters are small rocket engines used for orbit raising as well as attitude, trajectory and orbit control for satellites and spacecraft

The main purpose of pre-heating thrusters is to improve their performance at startup and to increase the lifetime of their components.

 

 

Heritage:

  • E3000 100volts
  • Prisma
  • Smart 1
  • Planet constellation
  • Many more

 

  • 100mN to 400 Newton thrust
  • 3 to 100 watts under 28 to 55 volts
  • Redundancy made with 2 heating loops
  • Dielectric 500 volt
  • Up to 1600°C

 

SMA heater

In order to accomplish their mission, spacecrafts require a variety of mechanisms whose typical functions are designed for deployment, articulation, positioning and displacement operations.

However, pyrotechnic separation nuts, paraffin actuators and certain other devices are no longer compatible with satellite requirements due to shock wave generation and potential contamination risks.

Non-pyrotechnic devices make use of SMA technology and are equipped with internal heating elements, offering slow and smooth responses, cleanliness and good vibration & shock resistance.

 

-Application:

  • Single one-time use Valve
  • Hold Down & Release Mechanism

 

  • Data:
  • Cable Ø1 mm 28VDC
  • 2 to 10 watts

 

  • Cable Ø5mm, 28volts:
    • 30 watts with 1 loop activated
    • 60 watts with 2 loops activated

 

Test List for Qualification Program

THERMOCOAX manages and conducts the qualification test programs in accordance with our customer’s specification.

Our engineers design the QTP for customer approval prior to running the test.

Most of the tests (thermal, humidity, electrical, etc.) are performed in HERMOCOAX’s labs.

Tests requiring heavy equipment (vibration, acceleration, shocks etc.) are subcontracted to external laboratories or supported by our customers with the complete propulsion system.

  • List of possible Qualification Test:
  • Vibration
  • Acceleration
  • Mechanical shock
  • Pyrotechnic shock
  • Helium leak
  • Burn-in
  • Humidity
  • Hot Firing
  • Electrical cycling
  • Thermal cycling
  • Lead attachment
  • Dielectric
  • Destructive physical analysis
  • X-ray examination

 

THERMOCOAX is a major competitor for onboard heating solutions for electrical heating systems and is proud to be a part of challenging international space programs.

THERMOCOAX focuses on high quality heating products for maximum stability and repeatability during operation. For 20 years we have understood our customers’ challenges to manufacture spacecrafts to create a better life for human beings.

Extensive new constellation programs are currently in construction.

THERMOCOAX is now ready to support the market with highly reliable and efficient heating elements.

 

 

THERMOCOAX Turbines Solutions Long-life Thermocouples

Thermocoax announces a new thermocouple generation :

  • 24 000 operation hours in heavy duty gas turbine
  • Exceptional resistance to vibration, thermal stress, corrosion…
  • Already demonstrated in air-cooled 446MWatt machine
  • 37 gas turbine  already equipped
  • 18 currently under operation
  • 1.2 Million hours cumulated
  • 699 starts

 

Technical application of long-life thermocouples

The gas turbine frames market is a challenging business. On the one hand, the frames are more and more high-tech and expensive and on the other hand, the energy producer is driven by low electricity production prices. To make them both compatible, gas turbine frames have to be reliable to minimize operation disruption and to offer longer periods without maintenance. Therefore, providing thermocouples with an increased lifespan decreases the downtime of the turbine, thereby significantly reducing the maintenance costs.

Required Benefits

One of the key aims of the OEM GT is to find high-accuracy thermocouples on the market that are able to perform in harsh environments and work for 24,000 operating hours without failing.

Thermocouples installed in exhaust gas lines are exposed to corrosion, vibration, thermal expansion and much more.

Thermocoax’s Solution: Design a thermocouple that is out of the excitation bandwidth

Based on the capitalized cumulative return of experience in several fields, such as aeronautical, nuclear and oil & gas, THERMOCOAX has developed a vibration absorber that is secured to the thermocouple to avoid premature breaking when the thermocouple is subject to vibrations and thermal expansion. This solution is protected by a patent.

The invention with the patent number 63638FR/CZ/BB – 17 58061 is a vibration absorber that is secured to the thermocouple cable and is made to fit inside the screen/thermowell.

The number and size of the absorbers depend on the gas turbine specification in terms of vibration, acceleration and thermal cycles.

To demonstrate the advantage of this new design and its ability to reach 24,000 operating hours, THERMOCOAX has undertaken simulation and experimental testing:

1.1 Simulation: Comparison between a thermocouple with and without a vibration absorber

Input data:

  • Ø ≈ 3mm Type K thermocouple with 316L SS sheath
  • Length ≈ 500mm insertion length in SS316L thermowell
  • Temperature 870°C
  • Frequency range: 0 to 250Hz, mean value 100Hz
Long-Life TC Standard TC
Resonant Frequency of the TC 174Hz 68 Hz
Stress produced by the Resonant Frequency of the TC 11.1MPa 450MPa
Number of cycles made before Breaking of TC at its Resonant Frequency 9×109 40
Life-span at the Resonant Frequency of the TC 2.1×109 days 10 days

1.2) Field test results: Comparison between a thermocouple with and without a vibration absorber

  • Ø ≈ 3mm Type K thermocouple with 316L SS sheath
  • Length ≈ 300mm insertion length in SS316L thermowell
  • Temperature 900°C
  • Frequency range: 0 to 1000Hz,
Long-Life TC Standard TC
Resonant Frequency of the TC 68Hz 174Hz
Life-span during the Endurance Test Still works after

20,000h

Stops working before 3000h

 

The test is still ongoing. We can already say that the field results demonstrate the extraordinary positive impact on the reliability of the gas turbine. This new long-life thermocouple lasts 7 times as long as a standard thermocouple.

For the powerplant operator, the cost saving is at least 150,000 euros in thermocouples for every 20,000 hours of operation because there are no costs incurred from the frame shutting for unexpected maintenance.

 

THERMOCOAX Pedigree

For 60 years THERMOCOAX has been a worldwide key player in designing, developing and manufacturing thermocouple temperature sensors for industrial and aircraft gas engines.

With our custom-made Mineral Insulated Cable, we are providing our customers with solutions for:

  • Development applications:
    • R&D programs with institutes
    • Ground, aero & industrial test equipment
  • Production models:
    • Thermocouples in harsh environments with an installed base of over 300,000 thermocouples:
      • Heavy duty gas turbine
      • Stroke engine
      • Steam turbine
    • Thermocouples for helicopter engines with 15,000 units installed
  • Thermocouple characteristics:

Thermocouples are produced with Class 1 custom-made cables with a diameter from 0.25mm up to 6mm.

Single (2 wires) or duplex design (4 wires)
Types K and N are the most used in the industry.

Thermocoax recommends type N thermocouples for a working temperature of between 600°C and 1100°C, which offer a smaller drift compared to type K.

We have several sheath alloys available:

  • Stainless Steel
  • Inconel
  • Haynes
  • Platinum
  • Tantalum

 

 

THERMOCOAX Calibration Lab

100% of the mineral insulated cable and finished thermocouples are controlled in the calibration lab.

  • Capabilities

Fixed points

TEMPERATURE -Thermocouple
Calibration purpose Mesurand Measurement range Best calibration uncertainty Measurement principle/Method reference (*) Calibration tools (reference, Equipement) Activities in Lab and/or on site
Thermoelectric couple Temperature                                                                              Electromotive Force Signal Voltage Melting ice point 0,00°C ±0,3°C Method by comparaison at a fixed point / PP200D010 Rev06 Water triple, Sn, Pb, Zn cells Platinum resistance thermometer multimeter                                                  Melting ice point Lab
Water Triple point 0,01°C ±0,3°C
Sn Melting point 231,928°C ±0,5°C
Pb melting point 327,46°C ±0,5°C
Zn melting point 419,46°C ±0,5°C
Sb freezing point 630,62°C ±0,9°C Sb Cells                                              Thermoelectric couple S Type Multimeter                                              Melting ice point

 

By comparison

TEMPERATURE -Thermocouple
Calibration purpose Mesurand Measurement range Best calibration uncertainty Measurement principle/Method reference (*) Calibration tools (reference, Equipement) Activities in Lab and/or on site
Thermoelectric couple Temperature                                                                                                                                                                        Electromotive Force Signal Voltage -40°C to 0°C ±0,4°C Method by comparison / PP200D022 rev 08 Ethylene/Glycol constant temperature bath                           Platinum resistance thermometer Multimeter                                     Melting ice point Lab
0°C to 80°C ±0,3°C
50°C to 200°C ±0,4°C Oil Constant temperature bath Platinum resistance thermometer Multimeter                                                 Melting ice point
150°C to 400°C ±0,5°C Bath of melted salts Platinum resistance thermometer multimeter
400°C to 500°C ±0,6°C
500°C to 700°C ±1,3°C Tubular furnace                                    S type thermoelectric couple Multimeter                                             Melting ice point
700°C to 1100°C ±1,4°C
1100°C to 1200°C ±1,6°C
1200°C to 1300°C ±2,1°C
1300°C to 1500°C ±2,4°C

THERMOCOAX 60th ANNIVERSARY

THERMOCOAX has reached a major milestone this year. The company is celebrating its 60th anniversary.

60 years of service to our customers, 60 years of innovation in the nuclear, aerospace, semicon, and industrial markets meeting the expectations of these sectors through their constantly evolving applications.

To celebrate this event, the teams undertook the crossing of the bay of Mont Saint-Michel last month.  Braving the cold, the mud, and the rivers (sometimes full), we managed to chase the clouds and together we reached the finish line of this jewel of architecture, The Mont Saint-Michel, also called the “Wonder of the West”.  It was a very beautiful day revealing the mutual effort, team spirit, strong human values of THERMOCOAX.

 

 

 

THERMOCOAX Aeronautic Products : Grey Water Drain Mast Equipped with Electrical Anti-Icing System

Thermocoax Pedigree

THERMOCOAX is a worldwide key player and has been designing, developing and manufacturing heating solutions for aeronautic market for 20 years.

Based on the 60 years homemade Mineral Insulated Cable, we provide our customers with solutions for:

  • Ground applications:
    • R&D programs with institutes
    • Ground aero test equipment
  • Flying models:
    • Anti-icing system for pitot tube, Angle of Attack, Total Air Temperature Sensor
    • Wire Cutter (WSPS) on helicopter equipped with electrical anti-icing devices.
    • Anti-icing screen for helicopter engine air inlet.
  • Specific Application:
    • Shower Heating system for VIP business Jet

 

Technical Application of Grey water drain mast

To save weight, the grey water from the washbasins is ejected to the outside of the plane.

Function of the configuration, most planes are equipped with two drain masts, one at the front and one at the rear where the washbasins are.


Drains are fixed at the bottom of the fuselage exposed to the outside air.

The major risk with a drain mast is the production of ice at the tip and risking a potential impact with the fuselage or it getting sucked into the engines.

 

Technical Description of Drain Mast Anti-Icing

In accordance with the specification, the drain is equipped with one or two water pipes.

The shell is made using the resin-moulded method.

For optimal efficiency of the anti-icing system, THERMOCOAX technology warms up the water pipes instead of the shell.

Heating cable technology available:

  • Self-regulated cable
  • Or fixed power cable coupled with switches
  • Inconel or nickel sheath cable
  • Ø 5 up to 3mm
  • Power supply 28 or 115Vac 400hz
  • Dissipated power from 20 to 250 Watts
  • Pipe Temperature up to >40°C at -55°C environmental conditions

Each heating cable is produced with cold ends.

The cable is then wrapped onto the tube.

The cable is flexible enough to increase the volume of cable and get more heat for areas exposed to coldest conditions.

Cable is brazed on the tube for:

  • Conduction pipe/heater for more thermal efficiency
  • Robustness
  • Reliability
  • Longevity
  • Production repeatability

  

 

Thermocoax Drain Mast Final Assembly

Drain masts are developed, produced and checked in Thermocoax facilities

Acceptance Test Criteria of Drain Masts:

  • Dimensional
  • Weight
  • Line resistance
  • Insulated resistance under 500Vcc
  • Dielectric 1mn 1500Vac

 

Test for Qualification Program of Drain Mast

THERMOCOAX conducts the qualification test program in accordance with our customers’ specifications.

Our engineers write the QTP for customer approval prior to running the tests.

Most of the tests (thermal, humidity, electrical etc.) on the drain mast are performed in THERMOCOAX’s test lab facilities.

These require heavy equipment (vibration, acceleration, impact etc.) and are sub-contracted to external laboratories or provided by our customers with the complete water system.

-Typical Qualification Test Schedule for Drain Mast

  • Vibration
  • Acceleration
  • Impact & Crash Safety
  • Vibration
  • Pyrotechnic Shock
  • Load Test
  • Temperature & Altitude
  • Temperature Variation
  • Explosive Atmosphere
  • Waterproofing
  • Sun & Dust
  • Fluid Susceptibility
  • Salt
  • Audio, induced signal, radio frequency
  • HIRF, ERFE
  • Lightning
  • Icing
  • Fire and Flammability
  • Combined Temperature, Altitude, Humidity
  • Dielectric Test
  • Corrosion
  • Engine Blade Out
  • X-Ray Examination
  • Thermal Cycling Test

 

 

Lightning test

 

THERMOCOAX supplies the following platforms:

  • Dassault Falcon Jet
  • Bombardier C Series
  • Embraer EJet 1 & 2

 

THERMOCOAX is a key player for anti-icing systems on board aircraft platforms and is proud to participate in challenging international aero programs.

THERMOCOAX focuses on high quality heating products for the best stability and repeatability in operation. For 15 years, we have witnessed the challenges faced by our customers to manufacture aircraft and to improve the safety and comfort of passengers.

 

New large programs are taking shape, THERMOCOAX is ready for production ramp up and supporting the market with cost-effective drain masts.

THERMOCOAX Aeronautic Products : Carbon Brake Temperature Monitoring & Aircraft Brake Monitoring System

Thermocoax Pedigree :

THERMOCOAX has been a worldwide key player for 20 years in designing, developing and manufacturing with thermocouple sensors for the aeronautical market.
Based on the 60 years Mineral Insulated Cable produced in-house, we are providing our customers with solutions for:
– Ground applications:
 R&D programs with institutes
 Ground aero test equipment

– Flying models:
 Thermocouples and RTDs for air cabin management system.
 Thermocouples for helicopter engines with 15 000 units installed
 Alternator Bearing temperature measurement on twin aisle and double deck platforms

– Scientific tasks:
 Skin temperature on supersonic frame
 Engine Space launcher

image-4

 

Technical Applications of the Brake Temperature Sensor :

New technologies are rapidly developing and the brake industry is working hard to make aircraft operations safer and offer passengers more comfortable travelling conditions.

A new generation of brakes has been installed on modern aircraft. Carbon brakes developed by key brake manufacturers is the result of a long and costly program of investment in research and development.

The new carbon disk generation provides more power braking during landing but also during braking in an emergency.

Firstly, the brake thermocouple gives the brake temperature in real time and can be transformed in a “hot brake” alert to the pilot when the value goes over a predetermined temperature threshold.

It gives valuable information to the cockpit on the temperature of the right and left brakes. If these differ too much, an asymmetric friction on the brakes can cause difficulties when maintaining heading and keeping speed under control.

Thanks to this system, the pilot receives a “Go/No Go” clear message for takeoff authorization. The brake thermocouple indicates that in case of a braking emergency event during takeoff, the brake will have his full capacity to stop the aircraft on time for the safety of all passengers.

Secondly, during takeoff in hot climates, this temperature monitoring avoids a too early landing gear retraction. This avoids a risk of tyre explosion in the wheel compartment.

The brake thermocouple is now a key piece of equipment that airlines use to reduce turnaround times (TAT) in short-haul operations to around 30 minutes.

frein-carbone

This new generation of carbon brakes replaces the old metallic brake.

Each brake manufacturer develops their own carbon technology. Specialists agreed to give carbon technology products a longer life, more braking cycles and much higher efficiency of braking especially for heavy airliners.

But carbon brake technology produces high amounts of heat energy during braking and the temperature can get very hot if the dissipation of kinetic energy is not optimum. This temperature rises to nearly 1000°C during normal braking. In case of emergency braking at full power during takeoff at full weight, the friction off the carbon disks is so powerful that the energy produced causes the temperature to rise to 2000°C.

Temperature monitoring is implemented on every aircraft platform, commercial and military. One thermocouple per brake/wheel is the rule. A typical single-aisle aircraft is equipped with 4 thermocouples, a twin-aisle aircraft 8 to 12 thermocouples, double-deck aircraft 16 thermocouples and military fighter 2.

This is an opportunity for THERMOCOAX to contribute to this program and improve the safety of the airframe and passengers every day around the world.

 

Technical description of brake thermocouple

When measured at nominal temperature, the thermocouple typically has the following properties:

  • K type thermocouple
  • Single-circuit, 2 wires

19-09-2016-17-36-50

  • Class 1 in accordance with IEC and ASME
  • Ceramic insulator
  • Dielectric under 500V
  • Insulation resistance:
    • 1011Ω.m at room °T
    • 107 Ω.m at 600°C
  • Inconel 600 sheath
  • Ø 2.5 to 4.75mm
  • Hermetic connector EN2997
  • Hermetic connector D38999
  • 2 compensated pins

image1

  • Oval base or mesh for easy removal from the torque tube when replacing

image3

  • Mass: <100g
  • Environmental and safety of flight tests
  • Impact: RTCA/DO160 Sect 7 cat B, D
    • Cat B
    • Cat D
  • Vibration: RTCA/DO160 Sect 8
    • Cat R curve W
    • Cat T curve E
    • 2000 hz, 200G

19-09-2016-17-05-50

  • HALT Tests

 

Acceptance Test Criteria of the Brake Thermocouple :

  • Temperature calibration
  • Helium leak test
  • XRay by sampling
  • Time constant
  • Visual and mechanical inspection
  • Overvoltage
  • Line resistance
  • Polarity
  • Insulation resistance
  • Dielectric 500Vac, 60Hz/60s
  • Mass
  • Final manufacturing report

 

Packaging and Cleanliness :

THERMOCOAX focuses on high quality Brake thermocouple products for the best stability and repeatability while in operation.

We understand our customers’ challenges to manufacturing braking systems and to make the aeronautical industry reliable and the millions of passengers safer.

At THERMOCOAX, we are working hard to contribute to these incredibly challenging programs.

THERMOCOAX has supplied many commercial programs and military platforms.

THERMOCOAX designs, develops, qualifies and produces in accordance with aircraft specifications such as :

  • Airbus 350
  • Embraer EJet
  • Mitsubishi Regional Jet
  • Irkut MC21
  • Sukhoi Super Jet100
  • COMAC C919

 

THERMOCOAX is the major player for brake thermocouples and is a proud contributor to great aeronautic programs.

 

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